De izquierda a derecha, en el centro, el canciller alemán, Helmut Schmidt; el presidente francés, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing; el primer ministro italiano, Francesco Cossiga; el presidente estadounidense, Jimmy Carter, y la primera ministra británica, Margaret Thatcher, en Venecia, Italia, el 23 de junio de 1980. Foto: Daniel Simon / Gamma-Rapho / Getty Images
La Declaración de Venecia fue un acuerdo suscrito en junio de 1980 en esa ciudad italiana por los nueve miembros de la entonces Comunidad Económica Europea (actual Unión Europea), tras reunirse con representantes de la Organización para la Liberación de Palestina (OLP).
Los firmantes (Bélgica, Francia, Alemania, Italia, Luxemburgo, Holanda, Dinamarca, Irlanda y Reino Unido) reconocen en el documento el derecho a la existencia y a la seguridad de todos los Estados de la región de Oriente Próximo, incluido Israel, pero también, por primera vez, «los legitimos derechos del pueblo palestino» y «el derecho del pueblo palestino a la autodeterminación». Los nueve reconocen asimismo la legitimidad de la OLP como representante del pueblo palestino y como parte en las negociaciones del proceso de paz.
La declaración expresa también la necesidad de que Israel ponga fin a «la ocupación de territorios que mantiene desde 1967», y considera que los asentamientos de colonos israelíes en los territorios ocupados son un obstáculo para la paz.
June 13, 1980
1. The Heads of State and Government and the Ministers of Foreign Affairs held a comprehensive exchange of views on all aspects of the present situation in the Middle East, including the state of negotiations resulting from the agreements signed between Egypt and Israel in March 1979. They agreed that growing tensions affecting this region constitute a serious danger and render a comprehensive solution to the Israeli-Arab conflict more necessary and pressing than ever.
2. The nine member states of the European Community consider that the traditional ties and common interests which link Europe to the Middle East oblige them to play a special role and now require them to work in a more concrete way towards peace.
3. In this regard, the nine countries of the Community base themselves on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 and the positions which they have expressed on several occasions, notably in their declarations of June 29, 1977, September 19, 1978, March 26 and June 18, 1979, as well as the speech made on their behalf on September 25, 1979, by the Irish Minister of Foreign Affairs at the 34th United Nations General Assembly.
4. On the bases thus set out, the time has come to promote the recognition and implementation of the two principles universally accepted by the international community: the right to existence and to security of all the States in the region, including Israel, and justice for all the peoples, which implies the recognition of the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people.
5. All of the countries in the area are entitled to live in peace within secure, recognized and guaranteed borders. The necessary guarantees for a peace settlement should be provided by the U.N. by a decision of the Security Council and, if necessary, on the basis of other mutually agreed procedures. The Nine declare that they are prepared to participate, within the framework of a comprehensive settlement, in a system of concrete and binding international guarantees, including guarantees on the ground.
6. A just solution must finally be found to the Palestinian problem, which is not simply one of refugees. The Palestinian people, which is conscious of existing as such, must be placed in a position, by an appropriate process defined within the framework of the comprehensive peace settlement, to exercise fully their right to self-determination.
7. The achievement of these objectives requires the involvement and support of all the parties concerned in the peace settlement which the Nine are endeavoring to promote in keeping with the principles formulated in the declaration referred to above. These principles apply to all parties concerned, and thus the Palestinian people, and the PLO, which will have to be associated with the negotiations
8. The Nine recognize the special importance of the role played by the question of Jerusalem for all parties concerned. The Nine stress that they will not accept any unilateral initiative designed to change the status of Jerusalem and that any agreement on the city’s status should guarantee freedom of access for everyone to the Holy Places.
9. The Nine stress the need for Israel to put an end to the territorial occupation which it has maintained since the conflict of 1967, as it has done for part of Sinai. They are deeply convinced that Israeli settlements constitute a serious obstacle to the peace process in the Middle East. The Nine consider that these settlements, as well as modifications in population and property in the occupied Arab territories, are illegal under international law.
10. Concerned as they are to put an end to violence, the Nine consider that only the reunification of force or the threatened use of force by all the parties can create a climate of confidence in the area, and constitute a basic element for comprehensive settlement of the conflict in the Middle East.
11. The Nine have decided to make the necessary contacts with all the parties concerned. The objective of these contacts would be to ascertain the position of the various parties with respect to the principles set out in this declaration and in the light of the results of this consultation process to determine the form which such an initiative on their part could take.
- Carta de Sir Henry McMahon a Ali ibn Hussain (1915)
- Acuerdo Sykes-Picot (1916)
- Declaración Balfour (1917)
- Establecimiento del mandato británico de Palestina (1922)
- Carta fundacional de la Liga Árabe (1945)
- Resolución 181 de Naciones Unidas (1947)
- Declaración de independencia de Israel (1948)
- Resolución 194 de Naciones Unidas (1948)
- Resolución 242 de Naciones Unidas (1967)
- Acuerdos de Camp David (1978)
- Tratado de paz entre Israel y Egipto (1979)
- Resolución 497 de Naciones Unidas (1981)
- Comisión Kahan (1983)
- Reconocimiento mutuo entre Israel y la OLP (1993)
- Acuerdos de Oslo (1993)
- Tratado de paz entre Israel y Jordania (1994)
- Iniciativa de Ginebra (2003)
- Informe Goldstone (2009)
- Documento Kairós Palestina (2009)
- Plan de EE UU para Israel y Palestina (2020)
- Resoluciones de la ONU sobre el conflicto palestino israelí
- Resoluciones de la ONU sobre Irak